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Research Glossary

All of the NutraWorks Equine products are supported by peer-reviewed, published research. Read below for citations by product.
Starch Fix

Suagee-Bedore JK, Wager Al, Girard Id. Feeding DigestaWell® Buffer to horses neutralizes the effects of high starch diets on blood pH and inflammation. J. Anim. Sci Suppl. 2016; JAM Meeting Salt Lake City, UT, USA: PSVII-2 (807).

Wagner AL, Medina BM, Girard ID, Biddle AS. The impact of DigestaWell Buffer on the equine gut microbiome of healthy horses. J. Equine Vet Sci. 2019: 76: 72.

DeLano KM, McIntosh BJ, Suagee-Bedore JK, Kaufman KL, Ghajar SM, Wagner-Wells AL.  Feeding DigestaWell Buffer to overconditioned horses mitigates the effects of rapidly introduced nonstructural carbohydrate.  Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 2017;52:76-59.

Suagee-Bedore J, Girard I.  Feeding DigestaWell Buffer to horses alters the effects of starch intake on blood pH, LPS, and interleukin-1B.  Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 2017;61:36-45.

Pagan JD, Lawrence TJ, Lawrence LA.  Feeding Protected Sodium Bicarbonate Attenuates Hindgut Acidosis in Horses Fed a High Grain Ration.  AAEP Proceedings 2007;53:530-533.

Biddle AS, Black SJ, Blanchard JL.  An In Vitro Model of the Horse Gut Microbiome Enables Identification of Lactate-Utilizing Bacteria That Differentially Respond to Starch Induction.  PLOS ONE 2013;8.10:1-13.

Harlow BE, Lawrence LM, Hayes SH, Crum A, Flythe MD.  Effect of Dietary Starch Source and Concentration on Equine Fecal Microbiota.  PLOS ONE 2016;11.4:1-21.

McIntish, B.  Circadian and Seasonal Variation in Pasture Nonstructural Carbohydrates and the Physiological Response of Grazing Horses.  Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation in Equine Nutrition, Virginia Tech University.  2006.

Moreau MM, Eades SC, Reinemeyer CR, Fugaro MN, Onishi JC.  Illumina sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region 16S rRNA gene reveals extensive changes in bacterial communities in the cecum following carbohydrate oral infusion and development of early-stage laminitis in the horse.  Veterinary Microbiology 2014;168:436-441.

Suagee JK, Splan RK, Swyers KL, Geor RJ, Corl BA.  Effects of High-Sugar and High-Starch Diets on Postprandial Inflammatory Protein Concentrations in Horses.  Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 2015;35:191-197.

Topline Fix

Siard MH, Wagner AL, Medina BM, Girard ID, Adams AA. Effects of the novel feed additive Phytozen on immune and endocrine function in senior horses. J. Equine Vet Sci. 2015; 35: 414.

Columbus DA, Fioretto ML, Davis TA.  Leucine is a major regulator of muscle protein synthesis in neonates. Amino Acids. 2015 February; 47(2): 259-270.

Xu Z, Tan Z, Zhang Q, Gui Q, Yang Y.  The effectiveness of leucine on muscle protein synthesis, lean body mass and leg lean mass accretion in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  British Journal of Nutrition (2015), 113, 25-34.

Rowlands DS, Nelson AR, Phillips SM, Faulkner JA, Clarke J, Burd NA, Moore D, Stellingwerff T.  Protein-Leucine fed dose effects on muscle protein synthesis after endurance exercise.  Medicine & Science In Sports & Exercise 2014; 0547-0555. 

Ham DJ, Caldow MK, Lunch GS, Koopman R.  Arginine protects muscle cells from wasting in vitro in an mTORC1-dependent and NO-independent manner.  Amino Acids (2014) 46:2643-3652.

Tanner SL, Wagner AL, Digianantonio RN, Harris PA, Sylvester JT, Urschel KL.  Dietary crude protein intake influences rates of whole-body protein synthesis in weanling horses.  The Veterinary Journal 202 (2014) 236-243

Graham-Thiers PM, Kronfeld DS.  Amino acid supplementation improves muscle mass in aged and young horses.  Journal of Animal Science; Dec 2005; 83, 12; SciTech Premium Collection pg. 2783

Graham PM, Ott EA, Brendemuhl JH, TenBroeck SH. The EFfect of Supplemental lysine and threonine on growth and development of yearling horses.  Journal of Animal Science (1994)  72; 380-386.

Staniar WB, Kronfeld DS, Wilson JA, Lawrence LA, Cooper WL, Harris PA.  Growth of thoroughbreds fed a low-protein supplement fortified with lysine and threonine.  Journal of Animal Science; Aug 2001; 79,8; SciTech Premium Collection pg.2143.

Akbari M, Rasouli H, Bahdor T.   Physiological and pharmaceutical effect of fenugreek: a review.  Journal of Pharmacy, Vol. 2, Issue 4 (July 2012),49-53.

Kaur J, Singh H, Khan MU.  Multifarious therapeutic potential of fenugreek: A comprehensive review.   International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences (2011) VOl. 2 (3) 863-871.

Kumar K, Maliakel BP.  Fenugreek dietary fibre a novel class of functional food ingredient. AgroFOOD industry hi-tech.  Mar/Apr 2008; 19n2: 18-21

Platel K, Srinivasan K.  Influence of dietary spices on their active principles on digestive enzymes of small intestinal mucosa in rats.  International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition.  (1996) 47: 55-59

Hess TJ, Rexford J, Hansen DK, Ahrens NS, Harris M, Engle T, Ross T, Allen KG.   Effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on insulin sensitivity in horses.  Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 33 (2013) 446-453.

Hodge LB, Rude BJ, Dinh TN, Lemley CO.  Effect of w-3 fatty acid supplementation to gestating and lactating mares: On milk IgG, mare and foal blood concentrations of IgG, Insulin and glucose, placental efficiency, and fatty acid composition of milk and serum from mares and foals.  Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. (2017) 51: 70-78.

Ross-Jones TN, McIlwraith CW, Kisiday JD, Hess TM, Hansen DK, Black J.  Influence of an n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched diet on experimentally induced synovitis in horses.  Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (2016) 100: 565-577.

O’Connor CI, Lawrence LM, St. Lawrence AC, Janicki KM, Warren LK, Hayes S.  The effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on exercising horses.  Journal of Animal Science 2004 82: 2978-2984.

Pazos M, Andersen ML, Medina I, Skibsted LH.  Efficiency of natural phenolic compounds regenerating alpha-tocopherol from alpha-tocopheroxyl radical.  Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.  2007;55:3661-3666.

Ferri M, Bin S, Vallini V, Fava F, Michelini E, Roda A, Minnucci G, Bucchi G, Tassoni A.   Recovery of polyphenols from red grape pomace and assessment of their antioxidant and anti-cholesterol activities.  New Biotechnology May 2016;33: 338-334.

Ferri M, Rondini G, Calabretta MM, Michelini E, Vallinni V, Fava F, Roda A, Minnucci G, Tassoni A.  White grape pomace extracts, obtained by a sequential enzymatic plus ethanol-based extraction, exert antioxidant anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory activities. New Biotechnology(2017)39:51-58

Iglesias J, Pazos M, Torres JL, Medina I.  Antioxidant mechanism of grape procyanidins in muscle tissues: Redox interactions with endogenous ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol.  Food Chemistry (2012) 134:1767-1774

Aggarwal BB, Gupta SC, Sung B.  Curcumin: an orally bioavailable blocker of TNF and other pro-inflammatory biomarkers.  British Journal of Pharmacology (2013) 169:1672-1692.

Aggarwal BB.  Targeting inflammation-induced obesity and metabolic diseases by curcumin and other nutraceuticals. NIH Annual Review of Nutrition 2010;30:173-199.

Horohov DW, Sinatra ST, Chopra RK, Jankowitz S, Betancourt A, Bloomer RJ.  The effect of exercise and nutritional supplementation on proinflammatory cytokine expression in young racehorses during training.  Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 2012; 32:805-815.

Balage M, Averous J, Remond D, Bos C, Pujos-Guillot E, Papet I, Mosoni L, Combaret L, Dardevet D.  Presence of low-grade inflammation impaired postprandial stimulation of muscle protein synthesis in old rats. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry (2010) 21:325-331

Marzani B, Balage M, Venien A, Astruc T, Papet I, Dardevet D, Mosoni L.  Antioxidant supplementation restores defective leucine stimulation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle from old rats.The Journal of Nutrition 2008; 138:2205-2211.

Dickenson JM, Volpi E, Rasmussen BB.  Exercise and nutrition to target protein synthesis impairments in aging skeletal muscle.  NIH Exercise Sport Science Review 2013;41(4):216-223.

Rieu I, Magne H, Savary-Auzeloux I, Averous J, Bos C, Peyron MA, Combaret L, Dardevet D.  Reduction of low grade inflammation restores blunting of postprandial muscle anabolism and limits sarcopenia in old rats.  The Journal of Physiology.  2009;587.22:5483-5492.

Wagner AL, Urschel KL.  Developmental regulation of the activation of translation initiation factors of skeletal muscle in response to feeding in horses.  American Journal of Veterinary Research.  2012; 73: 1241-1251

Wagner AL, Urschel KL, Betancourt A, Adams AA, Horohov DW.  Effects of advnaced age on whole-body protein synthesis and skeletal muscle mechanistic target or rapamycin signaling in horses.  American Journal of Veterinary Research 2013;74:1433-1442.

Gastro Fix

Wagner AL, Nappert G, Medina BM, Girard ID. Impacts of Gastro-Well on gastric ulcer prevalence of competition horses in Canada. J. Equine Vet Sci. 2019; 76: 42

Coverdale JA.  Horse species symposium: Can the microbiome of the horse be altered to improve digestion? Journal of Animal Science.  2016;94:2275-2281.

Faubladier C, Julliand V, Danel J, Philippeau C.  Bacterial carbohydrate-degrading capacity in foal faeces: changes from birth to pre-weaning and the impact of maternal supplementation with fermented feed products. British Journal of Nutrition 2013;110:1040-1052

Respondek F, Goachet AG, Julliand V.  Effects of dietary short-chain fructooligosaccharides on the intestinal microflora of horses subjected to a sudden change in diet.  Journal of Animal Science 2008;86:316-323.

Schoster A, Weese JS, Guardabassi L.   Probiotic use in horses – What is the evidence for their clinical efficacy? Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2014;28:1640-1652.

Hotwagner K, Iben C.  Evacuation of sand from the equine intestine with mineral oil, with and without psyllium.  Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 2008;92:86-91.

Landes AD, Hassel DM, Funk JD, Hill A.  Fecal sand clearance is enhanced with a product combining probiotics, and prebiotics, and psyllium in clinically normal horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 2008;28.2:79-84.

Niinisto K, Hewetson M, Kaikkonen R, Sykes BW, Raekallio M.  Comparison of the effects of enteral psyllium, magnesium sulphate and their combination for removal of sand from the large colon of horses. 2014;202:608-611.

Jouany JP, Gobert J, Medina B, Bertin G, Julliand V.  Effect of love yeast culture supplementation on apparent digestibility and rate of passage in horses fed a high-fiber or high-starch diet.  Journal of Animal Science 2008;86:339-347.

Jouany JP, Medina B, Bertin G, Julliand V.  Effect of live yeast culture supplementation on hindgut microbial communities and their polysaccharidase and glycoside hydrolase activities in horses fed a high-fiber or high-starch diet 2009;87:2844-2852.

Medina B, Girard ID, Jacotot E, Julliand V.  Effect of a preparation of Saccharomyces cerevisae on a microbial profiles and fermentation patters in the large intestine of horses fed a high fiber or high starch diet. Journal of Animal Science 2002;80:2600-2609.

Faubladier C, Chaucheyreas-Durand F, da Veiga L, Julliand V.  Effect of transportation on fecal bacterial communities and fermentative activities in horses: Impact of Saccharomyces cerevisae CNCM I-1077 supplementation.  Journal of Animal Science 2013 91:1736-1744.

 Conner AL, Davis AJ, Porr CA.  Effects of a dietary supplement on gastric ulcer number and severity in exercising horses.  American Society of Animal Science 2018;2:119-124.

Sykes BW, Heweston M, Hepburn RJ, Luthersson N, and Tamzali Y. European college of equine internal medicine consensus statement- equine gastric ulcer syndrome in adult horses. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2015;29:1288-1299. 

Max Focus Fix

Thomson TL, Suagee-Bedore JK, Anderson MJ, Fikes KK, Medina BM, Wagner AL, Girard ID. Effects of a novel blend of citrus botanical oils on equine behavior during a startle test and while trailering. J. Equine Vet Sci. 2019; 76: 93.

Ceccarelli I, Lariviere WR, Fiorenzani P, SAcerdote P, Aloisi AM.  Effects of a long-term exposure of lemon essential oil odor on behavioral, hormonal and neuronal parameters in male and female rats. Brain Research 1001 (2004) 78-86

Val-Laillet D, Meurice P, Clouard C.  Familiarity to a Feed Additive Modulates Its Effects on Brain Responses in Reward and Memory Regions in the Pig Model.  PLoS ONE 11(9): e0162660

Soderstrom JM, Robinson PH, Clauzel JM.  Impacts of feeding citrus extracts on . measures of heat stress, as well as production, of high producing dairy cows during summer heat.  J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 90, Suppl. 3/J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 95, Suppl. 2

Komiya M, Takeuchi T, Harada E.  Lemon oil vapor causes an anti-stress effect via modulating the 5-HT and DA activities in mice.  Behavioural Brain Research 172 (2006) 240-249

Leite MP, Fassin Jr. J, Baziloni E, Almeida RN, Mattei R, Leite JR.  Behavioral effects of essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. inhalation in rats.  Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy 18 (supl): 661-666, Dez. 2008

Brown JA, Beaulieu AD, Seddon YM.  Effects of a novel compound on aggressive behaviour in grow-finish pigs.  

Jouany J-P, Gobert J, Medina B, Bertin G, Julliand V.  Effect of live yeastculture supplementation on apparent digestibility and rate of passage in horses fed a high-fiber or high-starch diet.  J. Anim. Sci. 2008.  86:339-347

Jouany J-P, Medina B, Bertin G, Julliand V.  Effect of live yeast culture supplementation on hindgut microbial communities and their polysaccharidase and glycoside hydrolase activities in horses fed a high-fiber or high-starch diet.  J. Anim. Sci. 2009. 87:2844-2852.

Medina B, Girard ID, Jacotot E, Julliand V.  Effect of a preparation of Saccharomyces cerevisae on microbial profiles and fermentation patterns in the large intestine of horses fed a high fiber or a high starch diet.  J. Anim. Sci. 2002. 80:2600-2609

Faubladier C, Chaucheyras-Durand F, da Veiga L, Julliand V.  Effect of transportation on fecal bacterial communities and fermentative activities in horses: Impact of Saccharomyces cerevisae CNCM I-1077 supplementation.  J. Anim. Sci. 2013, 91:1736-1744

Ishizaka S, Aurich JE, Ille N, Aurich C, Nagel C.  Acute physiological stress response of horses to different potential short-term stressors.  Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 54(2017) 81-86.

Foster JA, Rinaman L, Cryan JF.  Stress & the gut-brain axis: Regulation by the microbiome.  Neurobiology of Stress 7 (2017) 124-136

Erber R, Wulf M, Aurich J, Rose-Meierhofer S, Hoffman G, von Lewinski M, Mostl E, Aurch C.  Stress reponse of three-year-old horse mares to changes in husbandry system during initial equestrian training.  Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 33 (2013) 1088-1094

Dinan TG, Stilling RM, Stanton C, Cryan JF.  Collective unconscious: How gut microbes shape human behavior.  Journal of Psychiatric Research 63 (2015) 1-9

Bartolome E, Cockram MS.  Potential effects on the performance of sport horses.  Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 40 (2016) 84-93

Konig v. Borstel U, Visser EK, Hall C.  Indicators of stress in equitation. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 190 (2017) 43-56

Schmidt A, Mostl E, Wehnert C, Aurich J, Muller J, Aurich C. Cortisol release and heart rate variability in horses during road transport.  Hormones and Behavior 57 (2010) 209-215

Muscle Fix

Wagner AL, Splan RK, Suagee-Bedore JK, Girard ID. Dietary supplementation of DigestaWell® NRG to unconditioned Warmblood mares may reduce lactate rise following exercise. J. Anim. Sci. Suppl. 2016; JAM Meeting Salt Lake City, UT, USA: PSVII-5 (810).

Shen Y, Porr S, Suagee-Bedore JK, Wimbush KB, Wagner AL, Girard ID. Impacts of DigestaWell NRG supplementation on post-exercise muscle soreness. J. Equine Vet Sci. 2017; 52: 69.

Wagner AL, DeLano KD, Jenkins B, McIntosh B, Girard ID, Medina BM. Impact of DigestaWell® NRG on the insulinemic and glycemic responses of performance horses. J. Anim. Sci. Suppl. 3. 2018; 96: 253.

Miller R, Suagee Bedore J, Thompson K, McFarland L, Thomson T, Stutts K, Anderson M, Wagner AL, Girard ID. Comparison of physiological responses to exercise in horses on a conditioning regimen versus inactive horses receiving a yucca and fenugreek dietary supplement. J. Anim. Sci. Suppl 1. 2019; 97: 30.

Xianchu L, Ming L, Xiangbin L, Lan Z. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract supplementation affects exhaustive exercise-induced fatigue in mice.  Food and Nutrition Research 2018;62:1421

Pazos M, Andersen ML, Medina I, Skibsted LH.  Efficiency of Natural Phenolic Compounds Regenerating alpha-Tocopherol from alpha-Tocopheroxyl Radical.  Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2007;55:3661-3666.

Ferri M, Bin S, Vallini V, Fava F, Michelini E, Roda A, Minnucci G, Bucchi G, Tassoni A.  Recovery of polyphenols from red grape pomace and assessment of their antioxidant and anti-cholesterol activities.  New Biotechnology 2016;33.3:338-334

Ferri M, Rondini G, Calabretta MM, Michelini E, Vallini V, Fava F, Roda A, Minnucci G, Tassoni A.  White grape pomace extracts, obtained by a sequential enzymatic plus ethanol-based extraction, exert antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory activities.  New Biotechnology 2017;39:51-58.

Iglesias J,Pazos M, Torres JL, Medina I.  Antioxidant mechanism of grape procyanidins in muscle tissues: Redox interactions with endogenous ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol.  Food Chemistry 2012;134:1767-1774.

Akbari M, Rasouli H, Bahdor T.  Physiological and pharmaceutical effect of fenugreek: a review.  Journal of Pharmacy 2012 2.4:49-53.

Kaur J, Singh H, Khan MU.  Multifarious Therapeutic Potential of Fenugreek: A Comprehensive Review.  International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences 2011;2.3:863-871.

Ikeuchi M, Yamaguchi K, Koyama T, Sono Y, Yazawz K.  Effects of Fenugreek Seeds (Trigonella foenum greaecum) Extract on Endurance Capacity in Mice.  J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 2006;52:287-292.

Ruby BC, Gaskill SE, Slivka D, Harger SG.  The addition of fenugreek extract (Trigonella foenum-graecum)  to glucose feeding increases muscle glycogen resynthesis after exercise.  Amino Acids 2005;28:71-76.

Slivka D, Cuddy J, Hailes W, Harger S, Ruby B.  Glycogen resynthesis and exercise performance with the addition of fenugreek extract (4hydroxyisoleucine) to post-exercise carbuhydrate feeding. Amino Acids 2008;35:439-444.

Aleman M. A review of equine muscle disorders.  Neuromuscular Disorders 2008;18:277-287.

Liburt NR, Adams AA, Betancourt A, Horohov DW, McKeever KH.  Exercise-induced increases in inflammatory cytokines in muscle and blood of horses. Equine Veterinary Journal 2010;42:280-288.

Powell DM, Bennett-Wimbush K, Peeples A, Duthie M. Evaluation of Indicators of Weight-Carrying Ability of Light Riding Horses.  Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 2008;28.1:28-33.

Valberg S.  Muscle Conditions Affecting Sport Horses.  Vet Clin Equine 2018;1-24

Biome Fix

Wagner AL, Bill V, Lawrence L, Girard ID. In vitro dry matter digestibility of forages incubated with DigestaWell Fiber. J. Equine Vet. Sci. Suppl. 2017; 52: 93.

Wagner AL, Medina BM, Girard ID, Biddle AS. The impact of DigestaWell Buffer on the equine gut microbiome of healthy horses. J. Equine Vet Sci. 2019: 76: 72.

Perron BS, Wagner AL, Boyd JA, Girard ID, Guiterrez N, Burt JC, Splan RK. DigestaWell® Fiber improves in vitro digestibility of alfalfa and coastal bermudagrass hay fed to horses. J Anim. Sci. Suppl. 1. 2019; 97:29-30.

Perron BS, Wagner AL, Boyd JA, Medina BM, Girard ID, Guiterrez N, Burt JC, Splan RK. Fecal inocula from horses fed DigestaWell® Fiber improves in vitro dry matter digestibility of commercial hays in horses. J. Anim. Sci. Suppl. .2019; JAM Meeting; Austin, TX, USA: PSVII-35.

DeLano K, Wagner AL, Maduro L, Boulianne M, Girard ID, Medina BM. A novel blend of probiotics, prebiotics, spices and essential oils inhibits a number of common equine pathogens. J. Anim. Sci. Suppl. 3. 2018; 96: 253.

DeLano KM, McIntosh BJ, Suagee-Bedore JK, Kaufman KL, Ghajar SM, Wagner-Wells AL.  Feeding DigestaWell Buffer to overconditioned horses mitigates the effects of rapidly introduced nonstructural carbohydrate.  Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 2017;52:76-59.

Suagee-Bedore J, Girard I.  Feeding DigestaWell Buffer to horses alters the effects of starch intake on blood pH, LPS, and interleukin-1B.  Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 2017;61:36-45.

Pagan JD, Lawrence TJ, Lawrence LA.  Feeding Protected Sodium Bicarbonate Attenuates Hindgut Acidosis in Horses Fed a High Grain Ration.  AAEP Proceedings 2007;53:530-533.

Biddle AS, Black SJ, Blanchard JL.  An In Vitro Model of the Horse Gut Microbiome Enables Identification of Lactate-Utilizing Bacteria That Differentially Respond to Starch Induction.  PLOS ONE 2013;8.10:1-13.

Harlow BE, Lawrence LM, Hayes SH, Crum A, Flythe MD.  Effect of Dietary Starch Source and Concentration on Equine Fecal Microbiota.  PLOS ONE 2016;11.4:1-21.

McIntish, B.  Circadian and Seasonal Variation in Pasture Nonstructural Carbohydrates and the Physiological Response of Grazing Horses.  Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation in Equine Nutrition, Virginia Tech University.  2006.

Moreau MM, Eades SC, Reinemeyer CR, Fugaro MN, Onishi JC.  Illumina sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region 16S rRNA gene reveals extensive changes in bacterial communities in the cecum following carbohydrate oral infusion and development of early-stage laminitis in the horse.  Veterinary Microbiology 2014;168:436-441.

Suagee JK, Splan RK, Swyers KL, Geor RJ, Corl BA.  Effects of High-Sugar and High-Starch Diets on Postprandial Inflammatory Protein Concentrations in Horses.  Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 2015;35:191-197.

Meta Fix

A.E. Durham, N. Frank, C.M. McGowan, N.J. Menzies-Gow, E. Roelfsema, I. Vervuert, K. Feige, K. Fey. ECEIM consensus statement on equine metabolic syndrome. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2019;33:335-349

M.H. Siard, K.E. McMurry, A.A. Adams. Effects of polyphenols including curcuminoids, resveratrol, quercetin, pterostilbene, and hydroxypterostilbene on lymphocute pro-inflammatory cytokine production of senior horses in vitro. Journal of Veterinary Immunology 2016;173:50-59

A.A. Adams, M.H. Siard, S.E. Reedy, C. Stewart, A. Betancourt, M.G. Sanz, D.W. Horohov. Identifying the role of a ‘caloric restriction mimetic’, resveratrol, in equine Metaboic Syndrome and its implications for targeted therapy. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 2013;33:321-399

M.U. Ememe, W.P. Mshelia, J.O. Ayo. Ameliorative Effects of Resveratrol on Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 2015;35:518-523

Y. Hua, S. Clark, J. Ren, N. Sreejayan. Molecular mechanisms of chromium in alleviating insulin resistance. Journal of Nutritional biochemistry 2012; 23:313-319

J. Starzonek, K. Roscher, M. Bluher, D. Blaue, C. Schedlbauer, M. Hirz, J. Raila, I. Vervuert. Effects of a blend of green tea and curcuma extract supplementation on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in horses and ponies. PeerJ 7:e8053

L.A. Forney, N.R. Lenard, L.K. Stewart, T.M. Henagan. Deitary Quesrcetin attenuates adipose tissue expansion and inflammation and alters adipocyte morphology in a tissue-specific manner. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19:895

N.H. Le, K. Chu-Sook, T. Park, J.H.Y. Park, M-Kyung Sung, D.G. Lee, Sun-Myung Hong, Suck-Young Choe, T. Goto, T. Kawada, R. Yu. Quercetin protects against obesity-induced skeletal muscle inflammation and atrophy. Mediators of Inflammation. 2014; Article 834294

Suagee-Bedore JK, Wager Al, Girard Id. Feeding DigestaWell® Buffer to horses neutralizes the effects of high starch diets on blood pH and inflammation. J. Anim. Sci Suppl. 2016; JAM Meeting Salt Lake City, UT, USA: PSVII-2 (807).

Wagner AL, Medina BM, Girard ID, Biddle AS. The impact of DigestaWell Buffer on the equine gut microbiome of healthy horses. J. Equine Vet Sci. 2019: 76: 72. DeLano KM, McIntosh BJ,

Suagee-Bedore JK, Kaufman KL, Ghajar SM, Wagner-Wells AL.  Feeding DigestaWell Buffer to overconditioned horses mitigates the effects of rapidly introduced nonstructural carbohydrate.  Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 2017;52:76-59.

Suagee-Bedore J, Girard I.  Feeding DigestaWell Buffer to horses alters the effects of starch intake on blood pH, LPS, and interleukin-1B.  Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 2017;61:36-45.

Pagan JD, Lawrence TJ, Lawrence LA.  Feeding Protected Sodium Bicarbonate Attenuates Hindgut Acidosis in Horses Fed a High Grain Ration.  AAEP Proceedings 2007;53:530-533.

Total Fix takes the best and most useful attributes of Topline Fix, Gastro Fix and Biome Fix and combines them into an easy-to-feed daily pelleted dose.